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Full text of "Woody plants for landscape use in California"

CALIFORNIA 
AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE 

CIRCULAR 109 

AUGUST, 1938 



Woody Plants for Landscape Use 
in California 



HARRY W. SHEPHERD 



Cooperative Extension work in Agriculture and Home Economics, College of Agriculture, 

University of California, and United States Department of Agriculture cooperating. 

Distributed in furtherance of the Acts of Congress of May 8, and June 30, 1914. 

B. H. Crocheron, Director, California Agricultural Extension Service. 

THE COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE 

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA 

BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA 



CONTENTS 

PAGE 

Climate 3 

Soils 4 

Organic matter in soils 4 

Lime in soils 4 

Planting 4 

Time of planting and early care 5 

Pruning 5 

Insect pest control 7 

Disease control 8 

Propagation 8 

Vegetative propagation 10 

Naturalized roadside planting 11 

Grouping plants according to natural association 13 

Facer, filler, and background planting 18 

Use of natural plant associations 20 

Selection of nursery stock 22 

Plant grouping 23 

Group 1 23 

Group 2 24 

Group 3 25 

Group 4 25 

Directions for use of the plant lists 26 

Acknowledgments 48 



LIST OF TABLES 

1 . Trees, shrubs, and tropical plants for ornamental planting 28 

2. Vines and climbers 43 

3. Native shrubs for ornamental and roadside planting 45 



WOODY PLANTS FOR LANDSCAPE USE 
IN CALIFORNIA 

HARRY W. SHEPHERD 1 



The subject of woody plants for landscaping California homes is one of 
increasing interest. The choice of plant material is governed by many 
factors which must be considered in making selections for planting. The 
variable rainfall, the extremes of heat and cold, and the great difference 
in soil types, with other conditions, make the problem of selection in 
many cases a local one. The purpose of this circular is to direct attention 
to some of the more important factors influencing the choice of woody 
plants and to outline propagation methods. 

CLIMATE 
The United States Department of Agriculture Weather Bureau has 
divided the state of California geographically into four general sections 
according to rainfall : northeastern, northwestern, central, and southern. 
According to available records, the highest and the lowest average rainfall 
in the United States has been recorded within California. Usually high 
rainfall is recorded in the northwestern section of the state, whereas in 
certain parts of the southern section as low as 1.43 inches, for mean aver- 
age rainfall, has been noted. The rainfall is so variable that it is difficult 
to make definite plant selections based upon statistics. But even with 
the highest annual rainfall, such as 109.08 inches at Monumental, Del 
Norte County, irrigation will be found profitable during certain seasons. 
In this same region, as low an average rainfall as 14.63 inches has been 
recorded at Hornbrook, Siskiyou County. Obviously, less irrigation is 
necessary where rainfall is high ; nevertheless, many exotic plants will 
not grow successfully there. In most cases, also, drought-resistant plants 
are best adapted to sections of low average rainfall. Field observations 
indicate that there is a definite relation of rainfall to plant adaptation. 

The factors of low temperature and high temperature are also signifi- 
cant. Many evergreen shrubs will tolerate drought better at low tem- 
peratures, which are usually found at the higher elevations. Exotics 
introduced into these sections should, therefore, be tolerant of local con- 
ditions. Usually conifers tolerate low temperatures, but many species do 
not thrive well when exposed to high summer temperatures. Conifers 
may be successfully grown in interior valleys if sheltered by higher- 
growing and more heat-tolerant plants. Many evergreen shrubs will sur- 
vive a temperature as low as 16° Fahrenheit if the period of duration is 

1 Associate Professor of Landscape Design. 

[3] 



4 California Agricultural Extension Service [Cir. 109 

not long or if it does not follow one of active growth. For this reason, 
plants should be "hardened off" by gradually lessening the amount of 
water before the period of probable freezing, and thereby preparing 
them to withstand low temperatures without serious damage. 

SOILS 
There are many complex problems arising from soil conditions. It is 
difficult to assign the cause of favorable growth in the case of many 
plants to a restricted soil class. There are a few general facts which may 
be helpful in the study of plant adaptation. Many plants seem to favor 
sandy soils, while others grow best in the heavier soils. Examples of the 
former class are acacias, heaths, and the Australian tea-tree, while in the 
latter class we have the rose as an outstanding example. General soil 
conditions should, therefore, be observed and plants selected for condi- 
tions which are naturally most favorable for growth. 

Organic Matter in Soils. — Organic matter is usually lacking in Cali- 
fornia soils and the quantity to maintain in soils may vary. Where the 
supply is sufficient, heavy soils are not likely to check, and light or sandy 
soils become more retentive of moisture. The supply may be maintained 
by the growing as green-manure crops of legumes, such as yellow clover, 
cowpeas, or vetch, which thrive under varying climatic conditions. Stable 
manure is also a source of organic material, of which 10 tons per acre is 
not excessive when the soil is being prepared for planting. The organic 
matter in soils may largely determine their fertility ; this may, however, 
be supplemented by fall and spring applications of commercial ferti- 
lizers, according to the requirements of the plants. 

Lime in Soils. — Many ornamental plants thrive best in lime soils and 
have been called "lime-loving" because of their behavior in the presence 
of this compound. On the other hand, heaths, azaleas, rhododendrons, 
and many of the conifers, grow best in acid soils. Where neutral soils 
are found, heath improves with an application of aluminum sulfate at 
the rate of ^ pound per square yard. Commercial aluminum sulfate may 
be specified. Agricultural sulfur may be applied at the rate of 4 pounds 
per thousand square feet for the purpose of creating acid soil conditions. 
In most cases ground limestone or gypsum may be applied for the pur- 
pose of improving the physical condition of heavy clay soils, and the 
amount of application should be determined by local conditions. 

PLANTING 
Thorough preparation of the soil is essential to good growth. Plowing or 
spading, leveling, disking, harrowing, dragging, and the application of 
organic matter are practices which should be carefully planned. When 
the leveling is done after foundation excavations, only the top soil should 



Woody Plants for Landscape Use 5 

be replaced on the surface. This is best done by moving the top soil to 
one side, and if insufficient in quantity, additional surface loam should 
be hauled from the nearest source. 

Digging holes for planting is an art which varies according to the 
methods practiced by different gardeners. Some gardeners maintain that 
square holes are best in soils that cannot be thoroughly worked, for the 
roots emerging from the ball of earth are more likely to strike root in the 
surrounding soil in the corners of the hole. This would apply, however, 
only to the very heavy clay soils. "When uniformly deep soils have been 
well prepared for planting, holes need be dug only large enough to in- 
clude the roots. The most important consideration in digging holes in 
poor soils is to provide for a layer of at least 18 inches of good soil be- 
tween the sides of the hole and the "balled" plant. In case holes are to be 
dug in rock, hardpan, or exceptionally heavy soils, drainage should be 
provided by the use of agricultural tile. 

Time of Planting and Early Care. — November and December are the 
best months for planting provided that the ground is in good physical 
condition. Plants established at this time have the advantage of natural 
rainfall ; they should not be planted, however, when the soil is very wet 
and sticky. Plants from Australia and New Zealand should be planted 
during April or May, after the danger of late frost is over. In the milder 
coastal sections, the length of the season for planting is considerably ex- 
tended. 

Woody plants set out during November or December should be irri- 
gated whenever the intervals between rainfall are too great to maintain 
the best moisture conditions. Such plants established at the end of the 
rainy season should be irrigated every two or three days until the volume 
of earth surrounding the plant is thoroughly wet. Later, the interval of 
application of water may be lengthened according to the climatic con- 
ditions. Washing the foliage during the late afternoon will aid the plant 
in surviving the shock of transplanting. The roots of all deciduous 
shrubs and trees should be protected by a covering of wet burlap when 
being distributed for planting in the field. 

PRUNING 

Many shrubs should have a third to a half of their growth removed at 
planting time. This applies usually to broad-leaved evergreens and de- 
ciduous shrubs but not to conifers. This practice is for the purpose of 
reducing the top growth in proportion to the root system, and thus forc- 
ing new bud development on the lower branches, and is especially ad- 
vantageous for ground-cover plants. In some cases, the pruning is for the 



6 California Agricultural Extension Service [Cir. 109 

purpose of thinning out or shaping the plants. Removal of weak or dead 
wood is essential for healthy, vigorous growth. 

For ornamental trees, it is just as essential to establish a structural 
framework as in the case of orchard fruits. It is usually best to permit 
the low buds along the main stem or trunk to develop during the first 
season of growth because the mature leaves nourish the adjacent bark. 
This will influence the strength and size of the trunk. The spacing of the 
scaffold branches should also be determined the second season. The vigor 
of plants during early growth may largely depend upon healthy leaf 
growth which, when maintained upon low branches, provides shade for 
trunk protection and sustenance for development. 

Pruning of flowering shrubs should usually follow the period of bloom. 
The type of flowering wood should be observed ; for example, if flowers 
are produced on old wood, thin out after the flowers fade. If quality is 
desired, prune severely; if quantity is required, prune lightly. 

For the fruiting and berried shrubs which are so attractive during the 
fall, pruning becomes a thinning-out process ; or it may be simply the 
removal of weakened growth and the balancing of the structure by cut- 
ting back strong-growing shoots to permit the smaller branches to de- 
velop normally without disturbing the terminal growth. The pruning 
practice should be modified according to the form, habit, and vigor of 
the plants. Berried shrubs should be thinned after the period of bloom. 
Shrubs and trees may be pruned for reduction of size ; the cut, however, 
should be made close to lateral branches to avoid unsightly stubs and 
distorted forms. 

In cases where propagation material is desired, pruning may be sched- 
uled to follow the flowering period so as to provide cuttings at the time 
when the tissue will be most apt to strike root. Cuttings taken after bloom 
in the fall are also well filled with nutrients supplied by matured leaves 
and are usually short-jointed and of good size. Tip cuttings, taken before 
fruit setting, should be strong and from fruit-bearing wood. 

Much cutting back may be avoided if shrubs are selected for locations 
demanding low growth. For example : Creeping cotoneaster {Cot oncost er 
adpressa) planted under a low window, should be preferred to the silver- 
leaf cotoneaster (Cotoneaster pannosa) which would require cutting 
back, with resultant loss of berried effect. 

When flowering shrubs are pruned for spring bloom, or in the case of 
those bearing their blossoms on terminal growth of new wood, as with 
roses, the plants should be pruned just before the buds swell ; wounds 
heal or callus more rapidly at this time of year. There are many deciduous 
shrubs, flowering in the early spring, which should not be pruned reg- 
ularly. An example is the bridal wreath (Spiraea prunifolia). No gen- 



Woody Plants for Landscape Use 7 

eral rule for pruning plants may be applied in all cases. Those who know 
plants and study the habits of growth will prune cautiously and note the 
results; it is better not to prune if in doubt. 

Vines may be pruned during the fall after the maturity of the leaves. 
Vines, such as wisteria, may be pruned and trained as is done with the 
grape. Pruning the vigorous growth back to three or four bud spurs 
develops new growth for spring bloom. During the growing season, ex- 
cessive growth may be cut back to buds or lateral shoots. Frequently the 
vegetative vigor stimulated by excessive application of manure may re- 
sult in loss of bloom. Excessive irrigation may cause similar results. The 
checking of the sap flow by twisting a wire around the base of a wisteria 
plant may promote bloom. The wire should later be removed. 

INSECT PEST CONTROL 

The control of insects and diseases affecting woody ornamentals is im- 
portant. However, it is the purpose here only to emphasize the impor- 
tance of pest control ; other circulars and bulletins treat the subject more 
fully, describing and illustrating the pests and advising means of con- 
trol. 2 Woody ornamentals which are hosts to particularly injurious in- 
sects or diseases should be avoided. 

For the control of sucking insects such as aphids, scales, mealybugs, 
and thrips, a so-called "contact spray" is necessary. Many soft-bodied 
and exposed sucking insects may be destroyed or washed from their place 
of feeding by applying a stiff spray of water during the shade of the day. 
For many partially hidden insects, such as thrips and red spider, usually 
found on the undersides of leaves, light oils or summer sprays may be 
applied according to the directions listed by the manufacturers. A com- 
monly used spray for aphids and other small sucking insects is nicotine 
sulfate. In applying sprays one should be thorough and comply with 
every precaution so as to avoid damage to the tender growth of the plant. 
A spraying program must be arranged according to the proper interval, 
for too frequent spraying may cause damage to the plants. Sprays are 
applied either in solution or as dusts. Usually solution sprays are more 
desirable because the spread may be immediately observed. For all suck- 
ing insects, it is important to spray the body of the insect, whether found 
above or beneath the leaf. 

Chewing insects may usually be readily detected in either their larval 
or adult forms and they should be controlled in the early stages of de- 
velopment, when less poison is required. One of the most dependable 
stomach poisons for this class of insects is basic arsenate of lead. There 

2 More detailed information on control of insect pests will be found in: 
Essig, E. 0., and W. M. Hoskins. Insects and other pests attacking agricultural 
crops. California Agr. Ext. Cir. 87:1-156. 1934. 



8 California Agricultural Extension Service [ Cir - 109 

are other satisfactory poisons on the market which are sold under vari- 
ous trade names. Basic arsenate of lead is usually applied at the rate of 
4 pounds per 100 gallons of water ; or for a small quantity, a level tea- 
spoonful to a quart of water. 

For the night-feeding pests such as snails, slugs, sowbugs, or cutworms, 
specially prepared poison baits are spread over the ground and should 
be used according to directions. Failure of satisfactory control may 
usually be attributed to the distribution of insufficient bait. Snails and 
slugs may also be combated by seeking them at night with the aid of a 
flashlight. Alum sprinkled in light barriers around plants is detrimental 
to the activities of slugs and snails. 

DISEASE CONTROL 

Plant diseases are difficult to identify and therefore hard to control. Ac- 
cording to determination, the disease may be of either bacterial or fungus 
origin. A commonly known fungus is "rose mildew," which is controlled 
by summer-oil application once every 10 days throughout the growing 
season. A bacterial disease common to some plants of the rose family is 
fire blight. This is now controlled by cutting back well beyond the in- 
fected parts and with each cut, disinfecting the shears by swabbing them 
with a 1-1,000 solution of cyanide of mercury. There are many diseases 
common to ornamentals and those most injurious in certain localities 
should be avoided by selecting plants which are not susceptible or by 
planting resistant varieties. Disease may be indicated by discoloration 
of bark or foliage. In some cases, the yellow foliage may indicate the lack 
of some mineral, as iron. Discoloration of foliage may also indicate a root 
trouble of insect or disease origin, or may indicate unbalanced soil nutri- 
ents or unsatisfactory moisture conditions. Careful plant husbandry in 
maintaining cultural conditions essential to normal growth will prevent 
or overcome many pests and diseases. 

PROPAGATION 3 

There are two general methods practiced in the propagation of woody 
plants: namely, by seeds and by cuttings. Seeds should be harvested 
when mature, but before they have had opportunity to shatter. In only 

3 Some references useful in the study of plant propagation are: 

Hansen, C. J., and E. R. Eggers. Propagation of fruit plants. California Agr. 
Ext. Cir. 96:1-52. 1936. 

Hartley, Carl. Damping-off in forest nurseries. U. S. Dept. Agr. Dept. Bui. 934: 
1-99. 1921. 

Laurie, Alex, and L. C. Chadwick. The modern nursery. 494 p. The Macmillan Com- 
pany, New York, N. Y. 1931. 

Mirov, N. T., and C. J. Kraebel. Collecting and handling of the seeds of Califor- 
nia wild plants. California Forest and Range Exp. Sta. Forest Research Note No. 
18. 27 p. 1937. (Mimeo.) 



Woody Plants for Landscape Use 9 

a few cases are special methods of storage necessary, as for example pack- 
ing in ground charcoal. Most propagators are familiar with the common 
methods of sowing seeds. 

The method of sowing seeds used will depend somewhat upon the con- 
ditions necessary for germination. Some seeds are protected by a hard 
bony covering and their germination is hastened by stratification in moist 
sand or loose soil. This consists in placing a layer of seed and a layer of 
soil alternately, and watering the mass occasionally for the purpose of 
softening the seed coat. Germination may sometimes be hastened by 
placing the seed in cold storage at 40° Fahrenheit for two or three 
months. Rose seeds, for example, have responded to this treatment. The 
germination of certain hard-coated and oily seeds such as those of the 
acacia maybe hastened by soaking in hot water, at 150°-160° Fahrenheit 
for an hour or more. Many common seeds do not have a hard coat and 
therefore no special treatment may be required. 

A general rule for sowing seeds is : "Do not plant seeds deeper than 
three times their own diameter. "A good seedbed soil consists of equal 
quantities of leaf mold, sand, and garden loam. The product of a compost 
pile with a little sand added is equally good. A compost pile may be made 
by accumulating organic matter such as weeds, grass clippings, and 
leaves, over which a layer of soil is placed. Sprinkling 2 or 3 pounds of 
ammonium sulfate over the pile hastens decomposition and increases the 
fertilizing value. When the compost is formed, the various layers should 
be thoroughly mixed and screened for use. 

Seeds may be broadcasted or sown in rows. The care given seeds after 
sowing will affect germination. Very small seeds should be lightly cov- 
ered with a uniform layer of finely screened soil. Not all large seeds are 
sown to the depth stated in the preceding paragraph; exceptions are 
seeds of avocados and oaks. In the case of the former, the seed is placed 
with one-half its length above the surface of the soil. Acorns are covered 
with a burlap sack, or moist leaf mold, until sprouted and then sown one 
per pot with the acorns adjusted according to the direction of the pri- 
mary root. 

For some seeds, such as cactus, screened German or Holland peat fur- 
nishes a good medium for germination when compressed in a flat. The 
fine seed may be sown broadcast and lightly covered with clean, sharp 
sand. Rooted seedlings may be readily "lifted" from such a medium and 
they are less liable to damping-off diseases. 

Damping-off may be prevented in many cases by applying fungicides 
at the time of sowing. For pines, the organic mercuric compounds have 
given good results. Eight grams of zinc sulfate in 250 cubic centimeters 
of water applied to each square foot ( f soil has controlled the fungi on 



10 California Agricultural Extension Service [ Cir - 109 

pine seedlings ; this control measure is cited as an example to show the 
possibility of control if practiced at the time of sowing. 

Vegetative Propagation. — Growing plants by vegetative methods is 
known as cuttage. Leaves, buds, or layers may be used. These are general 
methods of growing a definitely selected strain true to type. 

Leaf cuttings are made only of succulent plants such as begonias, 
sedums, and cactuses. The medium usually used is clean, sharp sand, or a 
mixture of sand and Holland or German peat. Bottom heat hastens the 
development of roots and the small growing plants should be early 
"pricked out" for transplanting. By "pricking out" is meant the lifting 
of the rooted cuttings in such a way as to prevent damage to the root 
system. 

Budding is the method of selecting a dormant bud which is inserted 
into a stock by means of various cuts as, for example, a "T" cut. This 
method is usually practiced during the growing season. Roses are often 
propagated in this manner. Seedlings of a resistant stock, such as the 
wild single roses, are used and the budding operation is performed dur- 
ing the month of June. 

Inarching is recommended only as a means of saving a tree when it 
has been damaged to such an extent that its life is endangered. It con- 
sists in planting a seedling near the tree or in some cases several seedlings, 
and inserting the tapered upper portion into the living tissues of the 
stock as in bridge grafting. Large natural inarches have been observed 
under forest conditions. 

The propagation of ornamentals by cuttings is a method resorted to 
when quick results at little expense are desired. The chief medium for 
rooting cuttings is clean, sharp, river sand. It is important to have 
washed sand to insure the removal of all organic material. Bottom heat, 
provided by hotbeds, hot water pipes, or electric coils will hasten the 
development of roots. Cuttings should be made from fresh material and 
always by means of a sharp knife. Some cuttings may be made, as grape 
cuttings, by means of sharp pruning shears. The cuttings should be so 
made that the least surface is exposed for callusing. 

Softwood cuttings are prepared from the succulent new wood. These 
cuttings should always be placed in clean, sharp sand and usually root 
best with bottom heat. Tip cuttings are the growing tips of the new 
growth, and are classed as softwood. 

Hardwood or firm-wood cuttings are made from the more mature 
wood, which should be selected from the lower part of a twig which has 
many leaves or nodes. Some propagators insist that the best results are 
obtained when the cutting is of a limited size, as the size of a common lead 
pencil. There are exceptions to this practice, as in the case of cuttings 



Woody Plants for Landscape Use 11 

made of the London planetree (Platanus acerifolia) and the evergreen 
tamarix (Tamarix articulata) ; with these, cuttings 1 inch in diameter 
and 1 foot long have developed into the strongest plants. 

The cuttings should usually be made soon after the leaves are mature ; 
this applies to deciduous trees and some deciduous shrubs. For example, 
when the cuttings are made of the London planetree, the wood of the 
present season's growth should be used, and selected in the fall. These 
cuttings of mature wood, 12 to 14 inches long, may then be tied in bun- 
dles and inverted in sand for the purpose of callusing. During February 
or March, they may be placed in the nursery 18 inches apart in rows 3 
feet apart. Each cutting should be set with two-thirds of its length in the 
ground and immediately irrigated. No cutting should be planted which is 
not callused. "When cuttings are planted, they should be well firmed in 
sandy loam. Experience at the State Forestry Nursery, Davis, California, 
shows that planetree cuttings die readily from heat or dry winds. 

The application of water each week or every two weeks later in the sea- 
son will develop well-rooted stock. The same general method applies to the 
cuttings of the evergreen tamarix except that these cuttings need not be 
callused and should be planted directly where desired, for they do not 
stand transplanting. Irrigation at regular intervals is required. 

For flowering shrubs, propagation by cuttings, if done during the 
period following bloom, usually gives satisfactory results. In most cases 
the leaves should be retained when the cutting is made. Only when the 
leaves wilt soon after the twig is severed should the cutting be stripped 
of foliage. The leaves in this case should be cut off, not pulled off. The 
cutting should be packed in the sand or soil at least two-thirds its length. 
In some cases other media than sand may be used to advantage. Screened 
German peat moss mixed with sand in the proportion of 1 :3 by volume, 
is an excellent medium for rooting tip and softwood cuttings. 

Heaths are most readily grown from tip cuttings placed in a medium 
composed of % sand and % German peat moss. The flat in which the cut- 
tings are placed (one-half their length) should be covered with a plate 
of glass; this protection prevents excessive transpiration of moisture. 
Cuttings of oleander are readily rooted in jars of water in which is 
placed ground charcoal to keep the water pure. The cuttings of many 
species may be rooted in water. 

NATURALIZED ROADSIDE PLANTING 

Valuable lessons in shrubbery and tree grouping may be gained from 
nature. Many native woodland tree and shrubbery groups clearly demon- 
strate unity of plant composition. Unity is realized when an analysis of 
these groups reveals one predominant species, as, for example, the live 



12 California Agricultural Extension Service [Cir. 109 

oak (Quercus agrifolia) . The restful and pleasing quality of naturalistic 
planting arises from simplicity of grouping and the relation of trees to 
harmonious masses of shrubbery. With so many fine examples of natural 
plant association on every hand, one may wonder why the natural method 
of planting rural highways is not more generally adopted. There seems 
to be little justification, aesthetic or practical, for the avenue method of 
tree planting throughout rural districts. 




Fig. 1. — A beautiful tree of native madrono (Arbutus Menziesii) , adapted to 
park and home grounds. This specimen is on the Capital grounds at Sacramento. 

The framing of rural landscapes by naturally arranged and adapted 
trees, is most effective from the point of view of design. However, what 
about the practical considerations ? 

Formally planted highway trees necessitate periodic pruning to main- 
tain uniform shape and size and also to prevent the hazard of overhang- 
ing limbs. Roadside trees in regions of scant rainfall also require more 
water as they develop. On the other hand, these same trees arranged in 
groups reduce pruning to a minimum, for there is no need to maintain 
each tree as an individual specimen and irrigation is also provided at 
less expense. Owing to mutual protection, groups are less liable to damage 
from winds. There may also be less economic loss from shade and tree 
competition to adjacent agricultural fields and orchards. 

Naturally grouped trees add to the safety and comfort of the operator 
of an automobile. On north and south rural highways, the distraction 
caused by flickering shadows due to trees closely planted at regular in- 
tervals, is very noticeable to car operators. This distraction, which is 
annoying and hazardous, would be eliminated by natural tree grouping. 



Woody Plants for Landscape Use 



13 



Natural grouping reveals the rural landscape most effectively from a 
scenic point of view and sufficient practical considerations have been out- 
lined to indicate the economy of natural composition and association in 
roadside planting. 



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Fig. 2. — A pink-flowering horsechestnut 
(Aesculus carnea) for a deciduous street or 
accent tree. The width of parking shown here, 
which is 5 feet, should be the minimum used 
with street trees for satisfactory development. 

GROUPING PLANTS ACCORDING TO NATURAL 
ASSOCIATION 

The proper grouping of plant materials is an art that few gardeners 
master. Everywhere you will find the hit-and-miss method, the purpose 
of which seems to be the display of as large a variety as possible, with 
little or no thought for the effect as a whole. The study of the essential 
principles of plant composition should result in good taste in the group- 
ing of shrubs. 

It should be understood, however, that many plants are selected for 
specimens or for individual planting to serve some special purpose in 
planting composition. Examples of such are given in figures 1-5. 

In grouping use those plants which thrive well in similar soil condi- 



14 



California Agricultural Extension Service [ Cir - 109 



tions. Combine shrubs and trees which produce harmony in leaf texture 
and structure of branch. Generally speaking, select those plants which 
belong to the same genus or botanical group (fig. 6). Arrange shrubs 
which in habit of growth merge together, appearing as a single large 
specimen. Variety may not always produce interest. Intricacy tends to 
develop interest by a disposition of objects which, by partial conceal- 
ment, excites curiosity. 




Fig. 3. — Sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) , 
a tree deserving more general planting. The tree 
shown has been properly trained, with the lower 
branches maintained for the purpose of invigorat- 
ing and protecting the trunk. The color of foliage 
is striking in the fall. 

We should define texture as the size of leaf ; structure as the arrange- 
ment of branch. Fineness of leaf texture may be utilized to give the 
illusion of distance. The shrubs or trees with large leaves planted near 
a point of view with those bearing smaller leaves farther away, tends to 
increase the distance effect by the general reduction of the scale of the 
leaves. The structure or arrangement of the branches is important since 
regularity will give a plant a certain symmetrical form (fig. 7). The 
conifers of regular shape do not group well because each possesses an 



Woody Plants for Landscape Use 



15 



individual form ; and shrubs of stiff regular form are not usually adapted 
for natural groups for the same reason. 

Habit of growth is another important factor to be considered in group- 
ing ornamentals. By habit of growth we mean that a plant is prostrate, 




Fig. 4. — Chinese wisteria (Wisteria sinensis) and strawberry tree 
(Arbutus Unedo), a vine and a tall shrub widely adapted for planting 
in California. 

trailing, upright, horizontally branched, twining, or climbing. Form has 
already been referred to and concerns the shape of the growth, whether 
it is round-headed, vase form, conical, or columnar. Round-headed and 
vase-form trees group better than others. Columnar or conical specimens 
may be used for contrast but do not group or mass well. 



16 



California Agricultural Extension Service [Cir. 109 



The term "foundation planting" has often been wrongly interpreted. 
The practice of surrounding small buildings by "close-formation" shrub- 
bery planting is the result of an often-taught principle of filling in the 
angle formed by the vertical line of the building and the horizontal 
ground line. This mass planting too frequently includes several popular 
varieties of disassociated plants. Each home-grounds plan is an indi- 
vidual problem and planting arrangement should be determined by 




Fig. 5. — An evergeen vine, winter wisteria, 
(Millettia megasperma) , and California privet 
hedge (Ligustrum ovali folium) , planted at the 
back door of a California home in an interior val- 
ley. In mild, protected places this evergreen vine 
thrives, though it is listed as somewhat tender. 

careful study and the application of good taste in design. One cannot 
state definitely that all structures of similar style should have mass plant- 
ing at the foundation, for there are other factors such as topography, 
adjacent development, outlook, background, and personal wishes of the 
dweller to take into consideration. The important idea should be attrac- 
tive and useful home surroundings. The registration of tracery shadows 
against a blank wall, the vista of distant hill through windows shaded by 
foliage supported by gnarled or twisted and curved colorful tree limbs, 



Woody Plants for Landscape Use 



17 

















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Fig. 6. — Natural composition. Species of Ceanotlius are well adapted to road- 
side planting and natural shrubbery groups. The species shown here is divari- 
catus; it has white flowers. 




Fig. 7. — Pleasing effect produced by planting coniferous shrubs as fore- 
ground. In the left foreground is Juniperus sdbina var. tamariscifolia and back 
of it, Juniperus chinensis var. pfitzeriana. The plants in the vases are Thuja 
occidentalis var. pumila. Any other species of the same genus would be equally 
satisfactory. The tall specimens for accent effects are Thuja occidentalis var. 
pyramidalis, although T. orientalis var. pyramidalis could be substituted for the 
same purpose. 



18 



California Agricultural Extension Service [Cir. iop 




Fig. 8. — A well-planted small home. The planting scheme includes foundation 
shrubs, porch vines, background trees, screening or border shrubbery, and open 
lawn. 




Fig. 9. — Attractive foundation planting for a southern California home, 
composed of the following: olive tree; Cotoneaster microphylla, under the 
window, and Arbutus Unedo and kumquat serving as shrubbery. 



seasonal bloom along garden pathways — these and other effects may en- 
able the home owner to realize his objective in planting composition (figs. 
8 and 9). 

Facer, Filler, and Background Planting. — The accepted terms em- 
ployed to describe the position of a shrub in a naturalistic border are 
facer, filler, and background. A facer shrub may be one which is ever- 



Woody Plants for Landscape Use 



19 



green and is diffused and interlocked with other specimens to form a mass 
effect, and is the shrub nearest the observer from the lawn (fig. 10) . The 
requirements for the facer shrub are neatness, adaptability, and ever- 
greenness. The filler shrub may be one which is deciduous and is there- 
fore partially hidden during periods of unattractive display by the 




Fig. 10. — Border shrubbery. Australian tea-tree 
(Leptospermum laevigatum) and Abelia grandi- 
flora, the lower shrub with white bloom, are two 
fine shrubs for the California home grounds. The 
foreground shows a planting of Indian straw- 
berry (Duchesnea indica) . 

foreground facer shrubbery. So-called "leggy" shrubs may be utilized 
for accent purposes. By "accent" is meant an element which will attract 
attention to itself because of form, texture, bloom, fruit, or position. Sup- 
porting the two groups described is the background shrub, which may be 
tall, evergreen, and of dark foliage. The variation of skyline depends 
somewhat upon the selection of the shrubs. The background shrub should 



20 



California Agricultural Extension Service C Cir - 109 



also be one which is somewhat more drought-tolerant since it occupies a 
more remote position in respect to the watered lawn area. The chief func- 
tion of background planting is effective display of foreground color in 
bloom and fruit. 

This classification of plant composition may lead one into the practice 
of planting shrubbery groups according to the "row" system and a series 
of facer, filler, and background rows may result in an obviously artificial 
planting. To avoid this regularity a single variety may be massed, with 
the inclusion of an occasional accent plant, to develop a pleasing compo- 
sition. Sloping ground may be used to advantage in proper arrangement. 
Regularity in arrangement may be prevented by occasionally bringing 




Fig. 11. — Natural composition. A restful, naturally arranged private garden, 
the species for which would grow anywhere in California except in districts of 
high rainfall or killing frosts. Pleasing shadows of vigorous shrubbery growth, 
an open lawn, and fine balance mark this composition. In the remote background 
is eucalyptus; immediately in front is Acacia longifolia; and in the right fore- 
ground is Abelia grandiflora. 



background shrubs out into the "facer" position (fig. 11). Naturalistic 
composition of shrubbery borders may be accomplished by planting 
fewer varieties, and thereby providing some dominating element and 
achieving greater unity. 

Use of Natural Plant Associations. — Natural plant association implies 
the use of shrubs, as along rural roadsides, which are related to native 
types found in the region. Attractive group planting for rural homes 
may also follow native composition. There are many advantages in estab- 
lishing plants related to native groups : The first important advantage 
may be that there is less danger of introducing injurious insect and dis- 



Woody Plants for Landscape Use 



21 



ease pests; another advantage is the little care necessary to maintain 
satisfactory growth, provided the most suitable forms characteristic of 
the region are selected. As has been stated previously, harmony of plant 
composition may be provided by selecting one dominant plant for the 
mass effects. 

Rural roadside planting (fig. 12) is a special problem demanding care 
and planning. Natives should constitute the major planting in regions 




Fig. 12. — Natural composition. The charm of 
the rural roadside shall not pass. Native syca- 
mores, oaks, and fine clumps of toyon (Photinia 
arbutifolia) are here shown in pleasing effect. 



which support attractive vegetation; the additional planting should 
merely supplement that found successfully growing in the region. This 
work of supplementing and establishing these roadside mass effects may 
be done prior to the period of rainfall. During drought periods the plants 
should be sufficiently irrigated to assure growth. Naturally occurring 
shrubbery and tree groups should be studied with respect to soils, drain- 
age, topography, and vistas to determine the spacing and ultimate com- 



22 



California Agricultural Extension Service t ClR - 109 



position. It is difficult to list plants for roadside planting because of the 
wide variation in local conditions. A general rule for guidance is to follow 
the natural trend for any given locality. 

SELECTION OF NURSERY STOCK 
In case nursery plant material is purchased, the best stock should be 
selected and from reliable and long-established firms. Plants come from 
the nursery as "balled," bare-root, boxed, flatted, potted, or in cans. Some 




Fig. 13. — Pot-bound roots of a rosy 
riceflower (Pimulea ferruginea), two 
years after planting. The condition of 
the root system indicates that the plant 
was pot-bound at the time of purchase. 

plants are purchased as budded or grafted stock. Most deciduous trees 
and shrubs may be secured during the late fall and winter or during the 
dormant period in a bare-root condition. The roots should be examined ; 
usually the best plants will have the most roots. Evergreen shrubs and 
trees should be in pots, boxes, cans, or balled, with soil mass secured by 
tightly wrapped burlap. Large specimens may be purchased in boxes. 
Select plants that are not pot-bound. If you ask the nurseryman to do so, 
he will demonstrate the rooted condition of the potted plant. All balled 
stock should be established — that is, dug long enough to indicate that it 
will continue to grow when planted. Plants should be specified that have 



Woody Plants for Landscape Use 



23 



been recently balled, and not those which have been held over two years, 
which necessitates re wrapping with burlap. Some hints on selection of 
nursery stock are given in figures 13-15. 





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. 



Fig. 14. — Brown-eyed rockrose (Cistus ladaniferus var. macula- 
tus), showing the result of the original pot-bound condition two years 
after planting. Note the limited root system in relation to the top 
growth. 

PLANT GROUPING 

A few suggested groupings, by way of example, are given below. One 
should keep in mind texture or fineness of leaf, structure or arrangement 
of branches, habit of growth, and form as the chief considerations in 
grouping. The following-named shrubs and trees may compose pleasing 
groups if appropriately placed. 

Group One plants 

Malwnia aquifolium (Oregon hollygrape) 15 

Photinia arbutifolia (toyon) 5 

Ceanothus arboreus (tree lilac) 1 

Quercus agrifolia (live oak) 1 

Arbutus Unedo (strawberry tree) 1 



24 



California Agricultural Extension Service [ Cir - 109 



It will be noted that in most cases odd numbers of each variety are 
selected; this is done to avoid regularity so that when planting, the ama- 
teur gardener can more readily plant naturally. All plants in this group 
are evergreen, with the foliage bright in Mahonia and toyon, moderately 
bright in Ceanothus, and dark in Arbutus. The Ceanothus has the most 
regular habit, and it develops a skyline effect and attractive blue bloom 
in the spring. For planting near the Quercus agrifolia or oak, all the 
plants are tolerant of shade. All of the shrubs make good ground covers, 




Fig. 15. — At the left is a cull budded rose, which should not be planted be- 
cause of a poor root system. At the right is a two-year-old, field-grown, budded 
rose of No. 1 stock, with top pruned and roots cut, ready to plant. 

and have similar requirements with respect to soil and moisture condi- 
tions. The Mahonia should be spaced 4 feet apart in the foreground ; the 
toyon, planted 7 feet apart, is massed with the Ceanothus in the back- 
ground. 

Group Two plants 

(1) Cotoneaster pannosa (silverleaf cotoneaster) 5 

(2) Cotoneaster Franchetii (Franchet cotoneaster) 9 

(3) Cotoneaster Earroviana 3 

(4) Cotoneaster adpressa (creeping cotoneaster) 10 

(5) Cotoneaster rotundifolia (roundleaf cotoneaster) 3 

(6) Cotoneaster microphylla (rockspray) 35 

(7) Cotoneaster horizontaMs (rock cotoneaster) 7 



Woody Plants for Landscape Use 25 

This is a group for a gently sloping bank ; the grayness of foliage en- 
hances distance. All shrubs in the group belong to the same genus, though 
certain of them predominate. The taller shrubs, Nos. 1, 2, and 3, should 
be placed in the background ; Nos. 4, 5, 6, and 7 are suggested as fore- 
ground plants and make a good ground cover. All are berried shrubs for 
fall effects and tolerate similar soil conditions. No. 2 can be permitted to 
"drift" to the foreground in one place, thus creating a "bay" in the plant- 
ing. No. 4 is excellent for "flowing" over a low wall. Nos. 4, 6, and 7 should 
be planted 5 feet apart and the others 9 feet apart. 

Group Three plants 

(1) Acacia pravissima (screwpod acacia) 1 

(2) Acacia Baileyana (Bailey acacia) 2 

(3) Acacia verticillata (whorl-leaved acacia) 15 

(4) Acacia decurrens var. dealbata (silver wattle) 1 

(5) Leptospermum laevigatum (Australian tea-tree) 7 

This evergreen group is primarily for quick results ; the plants are 
adapted to well-drained, sandy soils, limited water supply, and coastal 
conditions as in the San Francisco Bay region. Nos. 1, 2, and 4 will pro- 
vide a succession of spring bloom. No. 4, a 50-foot tree, is for variation 
in skyline. The dominant group is the darker foliage of No. 3. No. 5 lends 
interest in variety and is gray-green. One of species No. 1 could be placed 
as a highlight among No. 3. All these plants should be spaced 9 to 12 feet 

Group Four plants 

(1) Fraxinus velutina (Arizona ash) 1 

(2) Pyracantha coccinea var. Lalandii (Laland firethorn) . . 3 

(3) Pyracantha Gibbsi var. yunnanensis (Yunnan firethorn) 15 

(4) Spiraea prunifolia (bridal wreath) 7 

(5) Weigela florida (pink weigela) 1 

No. 1 is a deciduous tree for shade and skyline effect ; No. 2 is a tall, 
orange-berried shrub, tolerant of interior- valley conditions ; No. 3 is the 
dominant planting, of spreading habit and bearing orange-scarlet ber- 
ries. No. 4 is for white spring bloom and a highlight to the group ; No. 5 
is for the purpose of contrast and for pink spring bloom. It may be the 
end shrub of the group among a few of the spiraeas. This group has 
spring bloom and fall color of fruits. The shrubs are well massed with 
regard to the texture of the leaves, and the habit of the individual shrubs 
adapt them for grouping. No. 1 should be planted 30 feet away from the 
general group; No. 2, spaced 10 feet apart; No. 3, "drifting" in among 
and separating one of No. 2 species from the other two plants ; No. 3, 
planted 9 feet apart; No. 4, 7 feet apart; and No. 5 at one end of this 
group. The plants in this group are hardy and well adapted to interior- 
valley conditions where frost prevails. 



26 California Agricultural Extension Service [ Cir - 109 



DIRECTIONS FOR USE OF THE PLANT LISTS 

The plant lists have been arranged in three tables according to the char- 
acter of growth, or use. Table 1 includes broad-leaved evergreen trees, de- 
ciduous trees, coniferous trees and shrubs, deciduous shrubs, evergreen 
shrubs, and tropical plants ; table 2 lists the evergreen climbers and de- 
ciduous vines ; and table 3 indicates the native plants suitable for road- 
side and ornamental planting. 

In addition to name, plant family, and origin, the tables give some data 
on height of plant, use and adaptation, and, in the case of the horticul- 
tural forms, the method of propagation. 

There has been no attempt to make the lists complete, but most of the 
commonly used forms have been included. 

Many California nurseries publish excellent catalogs which list new 
horticultural varieties adapted to various regions.* 

The definitions of some of the terms as used in the lists are as follows : 

Accent : A plant noticeably different in size, form, texture, color, or habit and char- 
acter of growth from those composing its setting, or one which by position emphasizes 
a garden or architectural feature. 

Avenue: A large, vigorous tree adapted to parkings for major traffic ways. 

Background : A tree or shrub of vigorous growth, often drought-resistant, for the 
skyline effect at the rear of the house. 

Border: A tree more or less drought-resistant adapted for planting adjacent to the 
lawn. 

Lawn specimen : A tree of neat and attractive growth, tolerant of lawn conditions. 

Shade : A tree which is spreading and provides shade with the minimum of litter. 

Street: A tree of restricted but vigorous growth, adapted to city street planting. 

Tub specimen : A tree or shrub adapted to planting in ornamental tubs or boxes. 

Windbreak: A tall, vigorous, drought-resistant tree adapted to windy regions, for 
garden or crop protection. 

* Some references useful in the study of native or ornamental plants are : 

Jepson, W. L. Manual of the flowering plants of California. 1238 p. Associated 
Students Store, Berkeley, California. 1925. 

McMinn, H. E., and E. Maino. Pacific Coast trees. 409 p. University of California 
Press, Berkeley. 1937. 

Bailey, L. H. Hortus. 755 p. The Macmillan Co., New York, N. Y. 1935. 

Bailey, L. H. Standard cyclopedia of horticulture. 1200 p. The Macmillan Co., New 
York, N. Y. 1935. 



TABLES 



28 



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48 California Agricultural Extension Service t ClB - 109 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

The author wishes to express his appreciation to H. M. Butterfield, Spe- 
cialist in Agricultural Extension; Dr. W. H. Chandler, Pomologist in 
the Experiment Station; Woodbridge Metcalf, Extension Specialist in 
Forestry; Professor Walter B. Mulford, Head of the Division of For- 
estry; and Professor J. W. Gregg of the Division of Landscape Design, 
who made helpful suggestions and kindly reviewed the manuscript.